( ! ) Deprecated: Function Elementor\Core\Responsive\Responsive::has_custom_breakpoints is <strong>deprecated</strong> since version 3.2.0! Use Plugin::$instance->breakpoints->has_custom_breakpoints() instead. in /var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5379
Call Stack
#TimeMemoryFunctionLocation
10.0004363736{main}( ).../index.php:0
20.0005364432require( '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-blog-header.php ).../index.php:17
30.28728312304require_once( '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-includes/template-loader.php ).../wp-blog-header.php:19
40.376912836904include( '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/index.php ).../template-loader.php:106
50.376912836904get_header( $name = ???, $args = ??? ).../index.php:15
60.376912837280locate_template( $template_names = [0 => 'header.php'], $load = TRUE, $require_once = TRUE, $args = [] ).../general-template.php:48
70.377012837392load_template( $_template_file = '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/header.php', $require_once = TRUE, $args = [] ).../template.php:716
80.377312841112require_once( '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/header.php ).../template.php:770
90.377912850440wp_head( ).../header.php:21
100.377912850440do_action( $hook_name = 'wp_head' ).../general-template.php:3042
110.377912850816WP_Hook->do_action( $args = [0 => ''] ).../plugin.php:476
120.377912850816WP_Hook->apply_filters( $value = '', $args = [0 => ''] ).../class-wp-hook.php:331
130.377912852264wp_enqueue_scripts( '' ).../class-wp-hook.php:307
140.377912852264do_action( $hook_name = 'wp_enqueue_scripts' ).../script-loader.php:2156
150.377912852640WP_Hook->do_action( $args = [0 => ''] ).../plugin.php:476
160.377912852640WP_Hook->apply_filters( $value = '', $args = [0 => ''] ).../class-wp-hook.php:331
170.385212915856ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Classes\Locations_Manager->enqueue_styles( '' ).../class-wp-hook.php:307
180.390113124512Elementor\Frontend->enqueue_styles( ).../locations-manager.php:90
190.390113124920do_action( $hook_name = 'elementor/frontend/after_enqueue_styles' ).../frontend.php:630
200.390113125296WP_Hook->do_action( $args = [0 => ''] ).../plugin.php:476
210.390113125296WP_Hook->apply_filters( $value = '', $args = [0 => ''] ).../class-wp-hook.php:331
220.392513185672ElementorPro\Plugin->enqueue_styles( '' ).../class-wp-hook.php:307
230.393013200416Elementor\Core\Responsive\Responsive::has_custom_breakpoints( ).../plugin.php:156
240.393013200416Elementor\Modules\DevTools\Deprecation->deprecated_function( $function = 'Elementor\\Core\\Responsive\\Responsive::has_custom_breakpoints', $version = '3.2.0', $replacement = 'Plugin::$instance->breakpoints->has_custom_breakpoints()', $base_version = ??? ).../responsive.php:132
250.393013200416_deprecated_function( $function = 'Elementor\\Core\\Responsive\\Responsive::has_custom_breakpoints', $version = '3.2.0', $replacement = 'Plugin::$instance->breakpoints->has_custom_breakpoints()' ).../deprecation.php:242
260.393013200736trigger_error( $message = 'Function Elementor\\Core\\Responsive\\Responsive::has_custom_breakpoints is <strong>deprecated</strong> since version 3.2.0! Use Plugin::$instance->breakpoints->has_custom_breakpoints() instead.', $error_type = 16384 ).../functions.php:5379
中风后的言语治疗 – 香港微創腦及脊椎神經外科手術中心

中风后的言语治疗

在中风后的最初几天和几个礼拜,几乎有一半中风患者会有说话、阅读或书写文字上的问题,有些患者更会发生认字或理解字义的困难。此外,若有三分之一的中风患者会有吞咽困难。

当身体右半边部份受中风影响时,患者在沟通表达上的困扰就更常见了,原因是主要语言控制中心是位于大脑的左半侧。

当大脑语言中枢受到损伤,会出现语言障碍。语言障碍主要有两种,一种是失语症,另一种是运动性言语障碍。失语症患者多会在语言理解和语言表达上存在困难。在表达方面,命名困难比较常见,他们对某一件物品能说出用途,就是说不出名字,更有可能将「刀」说成「叉」。而运动性言语障碍是因神经肌肉受损以致构音器官不协调所致,主要表现为发音不准、吐字不清,例如将「刀」说成「高」。

神经性沟通障碍

中风令脑神经受损,可能导致以下沟通障碍:

(一)失语症:失去语言理解及表达能力;

(二)读写障碍:失去阅读书写能力;

(三)构音障碍:因发声和发音器官受影响令咬字发音、发声、呼吸、共鸣或韵律节奏出现问题,导致说话有口齿不清楚情况;
(四)失用症:协调和控制口腔肌能出现问题,说话时,好像控制不到口腔肌,如双唇、舌头、脸颊的活动;

(五)认知沟通障碍:因记忆力、专注力、解难能力、学习能力、思考能力等问题导致沟通障碍。言语治疗师评估患者情况后,会设计合适的治疗计划予患者。通过练习,可增强患者面部及口腔肌肉的控制能力,和增进沟通技巧。而家属也会接受训练,以掌握与患者沟通的技巧。如有需要,言语治疗师会使用其他沟通工具协助治疗。

吞咽障碍

吞咽困难的患者在协调和控制口腔肌运动出现问题,说话时,好像控制不到口腔肌,如双唇、舌头、脸颊的活动,而且,患者会容易错误地将食物吞进气管,引致呛咽或呼吸困难,严重者会导致肺炎及窒息。言语治疗师会与专科医生提供特别的吞钡X光造影检查(VFSS)或内窥镜吞咽检查(FEES)作深入综合吞咽评估,因应报告了解患者的情况,然后为患者设定个别的治疗计划;如改善食物的稀浓度及肌肉训练,以改善患者吞咽之能力。

中风患者的沟通困难各不相同,程度亦有差异,但亲属的帮助和鼓励肯定是十分要的。家属应多与病者沟通,使他有更多机会练习不同的沟通技巧,并多给予鼓励和体谅他所遇到的困难,使他较易适应,逐步重建自信。再配合言语治疗,病人的沟通能力或吞咽能力才能得到改善。