( ! ) Deprecated: 從 2.8.0 版開始,Elementor\Scheme_Typography <strong>已淘汰不用</strong>,請改用 Elementor\Core\Schemes\Typography。 in /var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5401
Call Stack
#TimeMemoryFunctionLocation
10.0005364864{main}( ).../index.php:0
20.0008366216require( '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-blog-header.php ).../index.php:17
31.153173083360require_once( '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-includes/template-loader.php ).../wp-blog-header.php:19
41.183474022160apply_filters( $hook_name = 'template_include', $value = '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/index.php' ).../template-loader.php:104
51.183474022568WP_Hook->apply_filters( $value = '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/index.php', $args = [0 => '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/index.php'] ).../plugin.php:189
61.255777188248ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Classes\Locations_Manager->template_include( $template = '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/index.php' ).../class-wp-hook.php:303
71.258777217792Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object->get_settings( $setting = 'page_template' ).../locations-manager.php:148
81.258777217792Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object->ensure_settings( ).../base-object.php:40
91.258777217792Elementor\Controls_Stack->get_init_settings( ).../base-object.php:142
101.258777217792Elementor\Controls_Stack->get_data( $item = 'settings' ).../controls-stack.php:2049
111.258777217792Elementor\Controls_Stack->sanitize_settings( $settings = ['eael_ext_toc_title' => 'Table of Contents', 'background_background' => 'classic', '__globals__' => ['background_color' => 'globals/colors?id=0e03762'], 'preview_type' => 'single/page', 'preview_id' => '408'], $controls = ??? ).../controls-stack.php:1061
121.258777217792Elementor\Controls_Stack->get_controls( $control_id = ??? ).../controls-stack.php:2302
131.258777217792Elementor\Controls_Stack->get_stack( ).../controls-stack.php:286
141.258777217792Elementor\Controls_Stack->init_controls( ).../controls-stack.php:480
151.258877217832ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Base->register_controls( ).../controls-stack.php:2215
161.258877217832ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Theme_Page_Document->register_controls( ).../single-base.php:93
171.258877217832ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Theme_Document->register_controls( ).../theme-page-document.php:33
181.258877217832Elementor\Core\Base\Document->register_controls( ).../theme-document.php:270
191.259277221488do_action( $hook_name = 'elementor/documents/register_controls', ...$arg = variadic(class ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Page { private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}main_id = 231; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}is_saving = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}elements_iteration_actions = []; protected $post = class WP_Post { public $ID = 231; public $post_author = '1'; public $post_date = '2021-02-28 11:11:44'; public $post_date_gmt = '2021-02-28 03:11:44'; public $post_content = 'Previous\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\tNext'; public $post_title = 'BaS Page'; public $post_excerpt = ''; public $post_status = 'publish'; public $comment_status = 'closed'; public $ping_status = 'closed'; public $post_password = ''; public $post_name = 'bas-page'; public $to_ping = ''; public $pinged = ''; public $post_modified = '2021-04-19 10:49:30'; public $post_modified_gmt = '2021-04-19 02:49:30'; public $post_content_filtered = ''; public $post_parent = 0; public $guid = 'https://neurosurgeon.hk/?post_type=elementor_library&#038;p=231'; public $menu_order = 0; public $post_type = 'elementor_library'; public $post_mime_type = ''; public $comment_count = '0'; public $filter = 'raw' }; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}id = 231; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_dynamic_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}data = ['id' => 231, 'settings' => [...], 'post_id' => 231]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}config = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_section = ['tab' => 'style', 'condition' => [...], 'section' => 'eael_ext_table_of_content_header_style']; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_tab = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_popover = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}injection_point = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}settings_sanitized = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}render_attributes = []; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object}settings = NULL }) ).../document.php:585
201.259277221864WP_Hook->do_action( $args = [0 => class ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Page { private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}main_id = 231; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}is_saving = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}elements_iteration_actions = [...]; protected $post = class WP_Post { ... }; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}id = 231; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_dynamic_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}data = [...]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}config = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_section = [...]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_tab = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_popover = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}injection_point = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}settings_sanitized = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}render_attributes = [...]; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object}settings = NULL }] ).../plugin.php:470
211.259277221864WP_Hook->apply_filters( $value = '', $args = [0 => class ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Page { private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}main_id = 231; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}is_saving = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}elements_iteration_actions = [...]; protected $post = class WP_Post { ... }; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}id = 231; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_dynamic_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}data = [...]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}config = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_section = [...]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_tab = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_popover = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}injection_point = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}settings_sanitized = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}render_attributes = [...]; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object}settings = NULL }] ).../class-wp-hook.php:327
221.261777357768Essential_Addons_Elementor\Extensions\Table_of_Content->register_controls( $element = class ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Page { private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}main_id = 231; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}is_saving = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}elements_iteration_actions = []; protected $post = class WP_Post { public $ID = 231; public $post_author = '1'; public $post_date = '2021-02-28 11:11:44'; public $post_date_gmt = '2021-02-28 03:11:44'; public $post_content = 'Previous\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\tNext'; public $post_title = 'BaS Page'; public $post_excerpt = ''; public $post_status = 'publish'; public $comment_status = 'closed'; public $ping_status = 'closed'; public $post_password = ''; public $post_name = 'bas-page'; public $to_ping = ''; public $pinged = ''; public $post_modified = '2021-04-19 10:49:30'; public $post_modified_gmt = '2021-04-19 02:49:30'; public $post_content_filtered = ''; public $post_parent = 0; public $guid = 'https://neurosurgeon.hk/?post_type=elementor_library&#038;p=231'; public $menu_order = 0; public $post_type = 'elementor_library'; public $post_mime_type = ''; public $comment_count = '0'; public $filter = 'raw' }; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}id = 231; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_dynamic_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}data = ['id' => 231, 'settings' => [...], 'post_id' => 231]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}config = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_section = ['tab' => 'style', 'condition' => [...], 'section' => 'eael_ext_table_of_content_header_style']; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_tab = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_popover = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}injection_point = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}settings_sanitized = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}render_attributes = []; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object}settings = NULL } ).../class-wp-hook.php:303
231.263177403888spl_autoload_call( $class_name = 'Elementor\\Scheme_Typography' ).../Table_of_Content.php:594
241.263277403984Elementor\Autoloader::autoload( $class = 'Elementor\\Scheme_Typography' ).../Table_of_Content.php:594
251.263277404104Elementor\Utils::handle_deprecation( $item = 'Elementor\\Scheme_Typography', $version = '2.8.0', $replacement = 'Elementor\\Core\\Schemes\\Typography' ).../autoloader.php:336
261.263377404984_deprecated_file( $file = 'Elementor\\Scheme_Typography', $version = '2.8.0', $replacement = 'Elementor\\Core\\Schemes\\Typography', $message = ??? ).../utils.php:569
271.263377405304trigger_error( $message = '從 2.8.0 版開始,Elementor\\Scheme_Typography <strong>已淘汰不用</strong>,請改用 Elementor\\Core\\Schemes\\Typography。', $error_type = 16384 ).../functions.php:5401
中風後的言語治療 – 香港微創腦及脊椎神經外科手術中心

中風後的言語治療

在中風後的最初幾天和幾個禮拜,幾乎有一半中風患者會有說話、閱讀或書寫文字上的問題,有些患者更會發生認字或理解字義的困難。此外,若有三分之一的中風患者會有吞嚥困難。

 

當身體右半邊部份受中風影響時,患者在溝通表達上的困擾就更常見了,原因是主要語言控制中心是位於大腦的左半側。

 

當大腦語言中樞受到損傷,會出現語言障礙。語言障礙主要有兩種,一種是失語症,另一種是運動性言語障礙。失語症患者多會在語言理解和語言表達上存在困難。在表達方面,命名困難比較常見,他們對某一件物品能說出用途,就是說不出名字,更有可能將「刀」說成「叉」。而運動性言語障礙是因神經肌肉受損以致構音器官不協調所致,主要表現為發音不準、吐字不清,例如將「刀」說成「高」。

神經性溝通障礙

中風令腦神經受損,可能導致以下溝通障礙:

 

(一)失語症:失去語言理解及表達能力;

(二)讀寫障礙:失去閱讀書寫能力;

(三)構音障礙:因發聲和發音器官受影響令咬字發音、發聲、呼吸、共鳴或韻律節奏出現問題,導致說話有口齒不清楚情況;
(四)失用症:協調和控制口腔肌能出現問題,說話時,好像控制不到口腔肌,如雙唇、舌頭、臉頰的活動;

(五)認知溝通障礙:因記憶力、專注力、解難能力、學習能力、思考能力等問題導致溝通障礙。言語治療師評估患者情況後,會設計合適的治療計劃予患者。通過練習,可增強患者面部及口腔肌肉的控制能力,和增進溝通技巧。而家屬也會接受訓練,以掌握與患者溝通的技巧。如有需要,言語治療師會使用其他溝通工具協助治療。

吞嚥障礙

吞嚥困難的患者在協調和控制口腔肌運動出現問題,說話時,好像控制不到口腔肌,如雙唇、舌頭、臉頰的活動,而且,患者會容易錯誤地將食物吞進氣管,引致嗆咽或呼吸困難,嚴重者會導致肺炎及窒息。言語治療師會與專科醫生提供特別的吞鋇X光造影檢查(VFSS)或內窺鏡吞嚥檢查(FEES)作深入綜合吞嚥評估,因應報告了解患者的情況,然後為患者設定個别的治療計劃;如改善食物的稀濃度及肌肉訓練,以改善患者吞嚥之能力。

中風患者的溝通困難各不相同,程度亦有差異,但親屬的幫助和鼓勵肯定是十分要的。家屬應多與病者溝通,使他有更多機會練習不同的溝通技巧,並多給予鼓勵和體諒他所遇到的困難,使他較易適應,逐步重建自信。再配合言語治療,病人的溝通能力或吞嚥能力才能得到改善。