( ! ) Deprecated: 從 2.8.0 版開始,Elementor\Scheme_Typography <strong>已淘汰不用</strong>,請改用 Elementor\Core\Schemes\Typography。 in /var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5401
Call Stack
#TimeMemoryFunctionLocation
10.0004364176{main}( ).../index.php:0
20.0007365528require( '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-blog-header.php ).../index.php:17
31.160273115272require_once( '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-includes/template-loader.php ).../wp-blog-header.php:19
41.188874054072apply_filters( $hook_name = 'template_include', $value = '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/index.php' ).../template-loader.php:104
51.188874054480WP_Hook->apply_filters( $value = '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/index.php', $args = [0 => '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/index.php'] ).../plugin.php:189
61.261777220160ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Classes\Locations_Manager->template_include( $template = '/var/www/vhosts/neurosurgeon.hk/httpdocs/wp-content/themes/hello-elementor/index.php' ).../class-wp-hook.php:303
71.263977249704Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object->get_settings( $setting = 'page_template' ).../locations-manager.php:148
81.263977249704Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object->ensure_settings( ).../base-object.php:40
91.263977249704Elementor\Controls_Stack->get_init_settings( ).../base-object.php:142
101.263977249704Elementor\Controls_Stack->get_data( $item = 'settings' ).../controls-stack.php:2049
111.263977249704Elementor\Controls_Stack->sanitize_settings( $settings = ['eael_ext_toc_title' => 'Table of Contents', 'background_background' => 'classic', '__globals__' => ['background_color' => 'globals/colors?id=0e03762'], 'preview_type' => 'single/page', 'preview_id' => '408'], $controls = ??? ).../controls-stack.php:1061
121.263977249704Elementor\Controls_Stack->get_controls( $control_id = ??? ).../controls-stack.php:2302
131.263977249704Elementor\Controls_Stack->get_stack( ).../controls-stack.php:286
141.264077249704Elementor\Controls_Stack->init_controls( ).../controls-stack.php:480
151.264077249744ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Base->register_controls( ).../controls-stack.php:2215
161.264077249744ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Theme_Page_Document->register_controls( ).../single-base.php:93
171.264077249744ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Theme_Document->register_controls( ).../theme-page-document.php:33
181.264077249744Elementor\Core\Base\Document->register_controls( ).../theme-document.php:270
191.264377253400do_action( $hook_name = 'elementor/documents/register_controls', ...$arg = variadic(class ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Page { private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}main_id = 231; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}is_saving = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}elements_iteration_actions = []; protected $post = class WP_Post { public $ID = 231; public $post_author = '1'; public $post_date = '2021-02-28 11:11:44'; public $post_date_gmt = '2021-02-28 03:11:44'; public $post_content = 'Previous\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\tNext'; public $post_title = 'BaS Page'; public $post_excerpt = ''; public $post_status = 'publish'; public $comment_status = 'closed'; public $ping_status = 'closed'; public $post_password = ''; public $post_name = 'bas-page'; public $to_ping = ''; public $pinged = ''; public $post_modified = '2021-04-19 10:49:30'; public $post_modified_gmt = '2021-04-19 02:49:30'; public $post_content_filtered = ''; public $post_parent = 0; public $guid = 'https://neurosurgeon.hk/?post_type=elementor_library&#038;p=231'; public $menu_order = 0; public $post_type = 'elementor_library'; public $post_mime_type = ''; public $comment_count = '0'; public $filter = 'raw' }; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}id = 231; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_dynamic_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}data = ['id' => 231, 'settings' => [...], 'post_id' => 231]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}config = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_section = ['tab' => 'style', 'condition' => [...], 'section' => 'eael_ext_table_of_content_header_style']; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_tab = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_popover = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}injection_point = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}settings_sanitized = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}render_attributes = []; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object}settings = NULL }) ).../document.php:585
201.264377253776WP_Hook->do_action( $args = [0 => class ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Page { private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}main_id = 231; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}is_saving = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}elements_iteration_actions = [...]; protected $post = class WP_Post { ... }; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}id = 231; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_dynamic_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}data = [...]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}config = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_section = [...]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_tab = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_popover = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}injection_point = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}settings_sanitized = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}render_attributes = [...]; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object}settings = NULL }] ).../plugin.php:470
211.264377253776WP_Hook->apply_filters( $value = '', $args = [0 => class ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Page { private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}main_id = 231; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}is_saving = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}elements_iteration_actions = [...]; protected $post = class WP_Post { ... }; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}id = 231; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_dynamic_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}data = [...]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}config = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_section = [...]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_tab = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_popover = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}injection_point = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}settings_sanitized = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}render_attributes = [...]; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object}settings = NULL }] ).../class-wp-hook.php:327
221.266677389680Essential_Addons_Elementor\Extensions\Table_of_Content->register_controls( $element = class ElementorPro\Modules\ThemeBuilder\Documents\Single_Page { private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}main_id = 231; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}is_saving = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Document}elements_iteration_actions = []; protected $post = class WP_Post { public $ID = 231; public $post_author = '1'; public $post_date = '2021-02-28 11:11:44'; public $post_date_gmt = '2021-02-28 03:11:44'; public $post_content = 'Previous\n\t\t\t\t\t\t\tNext'; public $post_title = 'BaS Page'; public $post_excerpt = ''; public $post_status = 'publish'; public $comment_status = 'closed'; public $ping_status = 'closed'; public $post_password = ''; public $post_name = 'bas-page'; public $to_ping = ''; public $pinged = ''; public $post_modified = '2021-04-19 10:49:30'; public $post_modified_gmt = '2021-04-19 02:49:30'; public $post_content_filtered = ''; public $post_parent = 0; public $guid = 'https://neurosurgeon.hk/?post_type=elementor_library&#038;p=231'; public $menu_order = 0; public $post_type = 'elementor_library'; public $post_mime_type = ''; public $comment_count = '0'; public $filter = 'raw' }; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}id = 231; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_active_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}parsed_dynamic_settings = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}data = ['id' => 231, 'settings' => [...], 'post_id' => 231]; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}config = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_section = ['tab' => 'style', 'condition' => [...], 'section' => 'eael_ext_table_of_content_header_style']; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_tab = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}current_popover = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}injection_point = NULL; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}settings_sanitized = FALSE; private ${Elementor\Controls_Stack}render_attributes = []; private ${Elementor\Core\Base\Base_Object}settings = NULL } ).../class-wp-hook.php:303
231.268077435800spl_autoload_call( $class_name = 'Elementor\\Scheme_Typography' ).../Table_of_Content.php:594
241.268177435896Elementor\Autoloader::autoload( $class = 'Elementor\\Scheme_Typography' ).../Table_of_Content.php:594
251.268177436016Elementor\Utils::handle_deprecation( $item = 'Elementor\\Scheme_Typography', $version = '2.8.0', $replacement = 'Elementor\\Core\\Schemes\\Typography' ).../autoloader.php:336
261.268277436896_deprecated_file( $file = 'Elementor\\Scheme_Typography', $version = '2.8.0', $replacement = 'Elementor\\Core\\Schemes\\Typography', $message = ??? ).../utils.php:569
271.268277437216trigger_error( $message = '從 2.8.0 版開始,Elementor\\Scheme_Typography <strong>已淘汰不用</strong>,請改用 Elementor\\Core\\Schemes\\Typography。', $error_type = 16384 ).../functions.php:5401
頭痛 – 香港微創腦及脊椎神經外科手術中心

頭部搖晃或創傷

不小心的頭部撞到櫃子或開玩笑的推撞,導致頭部遭遇搖晃或受傷,很多人都容易忽略忘記。病人常見於事後3週至3個月後才察覺到不適,才向腦神經外科醫生求診; 醫生經檢查後才發現頭部有撞擊或外傷的痕跡。

臨床上曾分析200多個腦外傷患者,有一半的人是完全不記起有過頭部遭遇搖晃或外傷的經驗。頭部的搖晃或撞擊,在日常生活中很容易見到。輕則頭皮外傷,重則意識不清,有生命危險。

車禍或不小心跌倒撞到頭,別以為沒有流血或看起來沒有外傷,就不到求診檢查診治。臨床上常見的腦內出血,就是外表一點傷口也沒有的腦創傷個案。 如果頭部曾遭遇搖晃或撞擊,患者本人及家屬有件事情一定要注意:

  1. 受傷時有否短暫失去知覺或局部失憶。
  2. 觀察傷者的意識是否清醒,時間需持續三天以上。
  3. 頭痛及嘔吐症狀是否愈來愈嚴重。
  4. 手腳單側有否麻木或無力情況。
  5. 走路步態是否不穩,有可能是小腦受傷。
  6. 腦創傷患者晚上睡覺時,家屬應密切留意,叫對方一下以確保清醒,以免腦內出血,血水壓迫腦部,造成嗜睡、昏迷不醒。

頭部創傷的評估分類

格拉斯高(Glasgow Coma Scale)昏迷指數是評估病人意識狀況的一個方法,滿分為15分,最低分為3分。其評分方法是依照病人的睜眼(Eye)、肢體運動(Motor)、及語言反應分別評分,三項之總和即格拉斯高昏迷指數。

頭部外傷後20分鐘之內,病人意識的格拉斯高昏迷指數為

  • (A) 輕度頭部外傷格拉斯高昏迷指數為 13分至 15分
  • (B) 中度頭部外傷格拉斯高昏迷指數為 9分至 12分
  • (C) 嚴重頭部外傷格拉斯高昏迷指數為 8分及 8分以下

頭部創傷檢查及處理

電腦斷層素描(CT Scan)和磁力共振造影(MRI)都已廣泛應用。尤其CT的應用,各種急性期的顱內血腫及腦創傷、腦水腫都可在CT影像下顯示清楚。目前的頭部外傷病患,除了給予顱骨X光照像外,對於意識不清、有神經功能障礙,及懷疑有顱內血腫的病例,應盡快安排CT檢查。

常見頭部創傷的種類與症狀及併發症:

  1. 頭皮血腫:頭部撞擊後,多數會腫起如雞蛋般,很痛。處理方式:不用塗藥,不要揉,不用熱敷通常一個半月就消失。
  2. 頭皮傷口:傷口需要注意是止血及保持傷口清潔。
  3. 頭痛:頭部外傷後的頭痛變異很大,有些人只有輕微頭痛,有些人卻有難以忍受的頭痛,有人是持續的頭痛,有人是一陣一陣的痛,有人是鈍痛,有人是像血管搏動似的痛,有人覺得像是灼痛,也有人覺得像有東西壓住的痛,而頭痛的範圍可能是瀰漫性的整個頭都痛,也可能局限在某些特定的部位。姿勢改變,壓力,疲勞,或用力時頭痛常會加重,休息或一般的止痛劑都能使頭痛暫時緩解。
  4. 頭暈:頭部外傷後的頭暈通常是間歇性的,每次大約維持幾分鐘,改變姿勢會引發頭暈,心理壓力亦會誘發頭暈,躺臥著閉眼休息時頭暈可改善。頭暈發作的頻率及嚴重程度有相當大的變異性。輕度頭部外傷後約有一半的病人曾經有頭暈,其中約有一半持兩個月以上。頭暈的病人中約四分之三有頭痛,而頭痛的病人中也大約四分之三有頭暈。
  5. 腦震盪:輕微的腦震盪是指並沒有任何頭部外傷,但頭部受重擊後可能有短暫失去知覺、聽覺及嗅覺的情況,或是有短暫記憶喪失、頭痛、頭昏、意識不清、視力模糊、走路不穩、耳鳴、噁心、失眠、無法集中注意力、情緒困擾、做事工作提不起精神….等等現象,此種情況可忽視,要找腦神經外科醫生求醫,處理腦震盪好,會有永久性的後遺症。
  6. 腦創傷:撞擊處鄰近的腦有實質的損傷,常見有顱內出血,除腦震盪的相關症狀外,腦創傷嚴重程度可引起昏睡、昏迷不醒、抽慉、肢體無力、行為或性格異常、呼吸急促等。
  7. 顱內出血(腦出血):血腫直接壓迫腦神經組織造成傷害,可引起頭痛、嘔吐、呼吸急促、臉部或肢體抽慉、暈眩、肢體無力、肢體麻木和意識改變、昏睡、昏迷不醒。及時求醫,會有永久傷殘或生命危險。在頭部外傷的個案中,最常見會致死的併發症就是「硬腦膜下」或「硬腦膜上」出血。 
    1. 慢性硬腦膜下出血:

      如果腦創傷患者是老人或幼童,尤其50歲以上的長者,常因晚上起床上廁所不小心失足,或走路不穩跌倒、撞到腦部,有機會出現「慢性硬腦膜下出血」,這種情況常在受傷2週後會慢慢出現,有些人甚至長達兩年。患者易有頭痛或單側無力、類似中風,記憶力減退…小腦受傷引起兩側腳無力、走路不穩、食欲變差等症狀;不過,電解質不平衡也會有手腳無力情形,很多老人家因此被延誤就醫。基本上,慢性硬腦膜下出血的發生機率低,通常約為1%至3%,一般大腦可自行吸收血水,一旦嚴重出血、長期壓迫腦幹,若未能及時用微創鑽孔手術引流放血水幫助腦部減壓,容易造成病者呼吸抑制,會有永久傷殘或生命危險。
    2. 硬腦膜上出血: 由於頭顱在受到撞擊後,顱內血管受到創傷而流血;「硬腦膜」本身是保護腦部最外面的一層硬組織;倘若出血不是很嚴重,則在頭部外傷的最初幾天(平均是四至五天)才會出現不尋常的劇烈頭痛病兆,甚至某些罹患者被診斷為「偏頭痛」或「緊張性頭痛」來治療;因此,在臨床上出現頭痛症狀的患者也應將頭部外傷的經過告知醫生,好讓醫生能作出明確的鑑別診斷。
  8. 腦撕裂傷及頭骨碎片:
    直接傷害到組織,症狀與腦創傷、顱內出血相同
  9. 腦水腫:
    腦細胞受傷後,常發生水腫現象,導致中樞神經損傷也會造成顱內出血。
  10. 腦缺血:
    常因顱內壓升高,導致血液供應不足,引起腦細胞的傷害或死亡
  11. 癲癇症
    腦創傷患者約有2%到7%的人可能出現癲癇症狀,尤其是中重度腦受傷者,他們發生癲癇的機率會較高,此時需觀察腦電波是否有不正常,若是嚴重癲癇便需要服抗癲癎藥來控制。

頭部創傷的注意事項

受傷後72小時內是最重要的觀察時期,患者及家屬需特別注意。若患者有下列症狀產生,便應盡快與腦神經外科醫生聯絡或直接到醫院接受進一步檢查:

  1. 受傷時有否短暫失去知覺或局部失憶
  2. 劇烈頭痛或頭暈
  3. 嗜睡或無法叫醒(如意識逐漸不清)
  4. 對外界漠不關心,注意力不集中或性格改變
  5. 對時間與地點失去定向力
  6. 噁心、嘔吐、眩暈
  7. 手腳單側有無麻木或無力情況
  8. 走路步態是否不穩
  9. 腦創傷患者晚上睡覺時,家屬應密切留意,叫對方一下以確保清醒,以免腦內出血,血水壓迫腦部,造成嗜睡、昏迷不醒